Populate in node js

i’m new to Node.js and i’m trying to use populate(), but it doesn’t work for me.

I want to populate user with forms

This is the model

const UserSchema = new Schema({
    firstName: {
        type: 'string',
        required: ' Firstname is Required'
    lastName: {
        type: 'string',
        required: ' lastName is Required'
    email: {
        type: 'string',
        required: ' email is Required'
    phone: {
        type: 'string',

    entrprise: {
        type: 'string'
    password: {
        type: 'string',
        required: ' password is Required'
    forms: [{
        type: mongoose.Schema.Types.ObjectId,
        ref: "Form"


and this is the function

const getUser = async (req, res) => {
    try {
        const { userId } = req.params;
        if (!userId) return res.status(400).json({ message: "ERROR ID!" });
        const result = await User.findOne({ _id: userId })
        return res.status(200).json({ message: "Success", result });
    } catch (err) {
        res.status(500).json({ message: "INTERNAL ERROR SERVER!" });

but this is what i’m getting as result

"message": "Success",
"result": {
    **"forms": [],**
    "_id": "5fc917c49aca9b98b8d9b2aa",
    "firstName": "lea",
    "lastName": "bouteflika",
    "email": "inspirez@gmail.com",
    "password": "$2b$10$zJ5Du2YdfJBsz1ah6JYm7uPe1RYMwmmqmq68TxbvbwYnHVcDKNQeq",
    "phone": "+213556865069",
    "__v": 0

the forms are empty, does anyone have answer?

98 thoughts on “Populate in node js”

  1. the code about populate is correct, you should check the id in forms field exists in From Model, because when you insert data in collection just one collection is updated

    const listOfIds = await User.findById(userId );
    let result = await Form.find({_id: {$in:[listOfIds.forms]}}).lean()

    so search list of ids in Form model, if the result is 0 so check the insert query;

    and you can use finById instead of finOne

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